Engineers must be practical otherwise customers will not buy their products and services. We are trained to be practical both by universities and experience. Our equations and models might not be the most elegant, but they work. They have to work from necessity. As physics is the core science, so systems theory is our core discipline. Systems integrates concepts across disciplines from electrical to pneumatic to mechanical. Control and linear systems theory play important roles in this. But so does the principle called the systems approach. It is essentially a set of four perspectives which may have to be invoked iteratively, recursively, or both: boundary, feasibility, reliability, and maintenance. It is a holistic principle, but it is more. It recognizes that brute reduction does not always work alone. It is an attempt to discover the synthesis in systems which produces more than the sum of the parts. It is an engineering attempt to utilize our creativity, intuition, insight, and inspiration to develop robust designs.
Typically, engineers and technicians work for physicists in creating machines such as the LHC (Large Hadron Collider). Incidentally, that machine may be the most expensive from human history. We appreciate the work and confidence you have in us. And in reality, we find the following essay most distasteful in practice. We regret to say that you may be 'running a rabbit' (chasing something that may not exist). The Higgs boson may not exist. In addition, the application of reduction so ubiquitously, such as with forces and virtual exchange, has caused physics to become sidetracked and lost in a forest of misapplied concepts and assumptions. Specifically, the concepts of virtual exchange, virtual particles, and non-locality have dragged the physics community down a path of confusion, wastefulness, and downright delusion.
We, as engineers, don't know what a magnetic field is â€“ but we certainly know how one behaves â€“ and we certainly know it is not made of virtual photons. The magnetic field is real. To us, there is no such thing as virtual anything. The concept is an intellectual crutch for ignorance. To state otherwise is deception. We agree it may be a clever intellectual crutch, but a crutch is a crutch. Again, we are forced to be practical. We use the concept of impedance to denote the summary characteristic of media that determines its permeability and permittivity. It is not artificial. It is a practical concern. We cannot design RF circuits without considering impedance. Impedance is a fact of our practice and practicality. Further, we recognize a factor called the impedance of space, denoted Z0. This is a kind of base value, substrate, or baseline for all others. All permeabilities are gauged with respect to the permeability of space. All permittivities are gauged with respect to the permittivity of space. Therefore, all impedances are gauged with respect to the impedance of space. The impedance of space holds prime importance in engineering. It is a basic quality of space with the same importance as dimensionality. To insist otherwise is to deny reality.
We recognize that Occam's Razor is a fundamental principle in science. Nature does not have to obey it, but we should. It states that: all things being equal, the theory with the least number of assumptions (the simplest theory) tends to be the correct one. It is the intellectual knife of science to cut away 'fatty theories' (fat being the theories with excessive assumptions). We employ it in this essay.
Let us restate the basic/core assumptions of convention (the Standard Model): 1. quantum self-interference is caused by non-locality 2. multi-state atoms/nuclei are exactly that 3. forces are caused by virtual exchange of force carrying particles
Let us state some plausible alternative assumptions more in line with engineering principles and determinism: 1. quantum self-interference is caused by extended portions of the standing waves comprising elementary particles 2. multi-state atoms/nuclei are actually different representations (distinct instances) of possible equivalent energy states 3. there are two distinct forces in our universe: electromagnetic and another 'mediated' by temporal curvature
Before we compare assumptions, allow me to discuss temporal curvature. Please allow me to copy-paste a section from a previous paper that was 'less formal' about the same subjects.
What is my explanation of the 'weak force'? To me, there are three things that define a nucleus: vibration, rotation, and geometry/arrangement. What tends to rip/push apart a nucleus: electrostatic repulsion between protons. The only reason protons can 'live' near each other in such close proximity are because of the 'adhesive force' from neutrons and the three nuclear characteristics listed above. We don't know when an unstable nucleus formed; we don't know its geometry; we don't know its rotation or vibration; we know nothing about internal characteristics of any particular nucleus. Therefore, it could decay at seemingly random intervals determined by: when it was formed and the three unknowable nuclear characteristics. To me, the 'weak force' is not a force â€“ it is simply electrostatic repulsion combined with the four unknowable nuclear characteristics.
So, in a sense, I have just unified electromagnetism (in my own way) with the 'weak force'. Step one .. Now we will unify the 'strong force' with gravity. I contend the strong force is not mediated by gluons. That's an unnecessary artifice. The strong force is what I call: 'near field' temporal curvature. And gravitation is 'far field' temporal curvature. In the process of investigating 'my model' of elementary particles, I have discovered that gravitation can be modeled and described by 'distributed temporal curvature'. We don't actually need space-curvature to explain gravity. So this is why I said GR was a step in the right direction. The bottom line here is that distributed curvature ONLY IN TIME is sufficient to FULLY DESCRIBE gravitation. Again, virtual exchange of particles is not required. It's unnecessary. Temporal curvature is minimally sufficient to explain 'strong force' and gravitation. Of course, you need a function (math description) to describe the exact radial curvature with respect to a proton/electron. Many conventionalists would balk at this point: "That's artificial! That's more assumptions!", but I contend â€“ less than theirs.
At this point, we have unified 'electro-weak' and 'strong-gravity'. Can we go further? I contend they are fundamentally different and so â€“ we cannot. Electro-weak is based on electromagnetism. Strong-gravity is based on temporal curvature. They are fundamentally different things. Is there some energy level where they appear the same? That's like saying: you're juggling apples and oranges â€“ the faster you juggle them â€“ the more they appear like a blur of apples and oranges. But that does not change the fact they are DISTINCT and very DIFFERENT fruit.
As far as requirements to 'stretch the imagination', isn't 5 better than 11 dimensions? One universe vs many? Temporal curvature and photons vs 5 virtual particles? Instances of equal-energy states vs multi-state systems? Extended waves vs non-local particles? The latter requires you to stretch and Stretch and STRETCH your imagination beyond rationality. The problem with 'physics of today' is not just reduction and fantasy â€“ but 'back patting' and reward for promulgating the status quo. As long as you reinforce convention, your 'research' will be rewarded with either money, accolades, or status (or all 3). That's why I will never be funded, praised, or recognized for proclaiming the truth â€“ I threaten the illegitimacy of conventional physics.
That ends my copy-paste from the previous paper. Of course, there are deeper assumptions hidden within both sets of three above. The paragraph just above attempts to address those. Convention knows better than I the full account of assumptions and parameters associated with the Standard Model. The assumptions and general specifications of parameters associated with this engineering model are listed above. There is one however that is not: hyper-time. It is the quality of space-time which must exist for this model to be real.
This engineering model of our universe is assumed to be sufficient to describe elementary particles and their interactions. It is based on: 3 dimensional Euclidean space, the impedance of space, temporal curvature, and hyper-time (which allows temporal curvature). If this model is correct, we live in an exceedingly simple and elegant universe where elementary particles are dual manifestations of energy residing in an extended 'electromagnetic wave packet' and localized temporal curvature.
We, the undersigned, representing the engineering community, challenge the physics community to an 'intellectual duel': develop a simpler, more concise, more elegant, and more realistic model of our universe. We appreciate the business and confidence associated with projects such as the LHC, but we feel resources are better spent on projects more aligned with reality and needs of humanity.
salvatore gerard micheal, micheals at msu.edu
Idrees Husain, midreeshusain at yahoo.com
Phil Lawson, stfactor at yahoo.com
Michel Grosmann, kaydom at noos.fr