We believe the most important science is to focus on how the mind works, with a focus on creating effing conscious interfaces. More than half of all scientific research and communication should go towards this. We could also consider 25% going towards anti aging, and curing of any other diseases, including research for better ways to feed the world. In short, 25% should go to anything proportionately to the years such research might add to the quality times quantity of all of our lives - especially for the poor.
Whatever remains after this 75% could then be spent on 'general science'. Today governments spend huge sums of money on 'large' science endeavors such as space exploration, the "Large Hadron Collider" and so on. After the next decade, how many people will have died or starved to death during that time, that would otherwise have lived, if some of this huge amounts of selfishly spent money went to more productive to all of society efforts?
Philosophers have understood that there is a phenomenal 'veil of perception' problem, or a 'problem of other minds' since the dawn of recorded history. The qualitative nature of our consciousness, like the taste of salt, or the redness quality of something that reflects 650nm light, most agree is 'ineffable' and subject to this 'veil'. We can't yet know if others redness experience is the same as ours, or if it might, instead be, more like our greenness, and so on.
Richard Dawkins indicates the most important question he wants to know the answer to in This YouTube Video. He is clearly a supporter of this camp that thinks subjective consciousness is the most important question. Not only will answering this question provide an effing understanding of how other's minds compare to our own - it will be the first step towards, creating consciousness interfaces, enabling uploads in a way that our knowledge of our souls will literally escape our spiritually isolated prison walls that are our souls, into a world that is not just causally abstracted, but is also richly qualitative, even spiritual in nature. As Joseph Smith Said: "All spirit is matter", and it requires 'purified' eyes to see it.