Current efforts regarding the development of a science of consciousness appear to be sharply restricted to a study of only the consciousness of the 'thinker', the origin of which can be traced to Descartes' Meditations on First Philosophy. And this consciousness of the 'thinker' or the "self", or the 'mind" is approximately equivalent to what Freud would later call the "ego consciousness".
As indicated in the opening passages of the Second Meditation, however, there is another dimension of consciousness which is not the consciousness of the 'thinker'; a dimension of consciousness which is referred to by Western psychology as the 'unconscious'.
And both of these dimensions of consciousness together--both the "ego consciousness" and the 'unconscious'--comprise what I refer to as the 'classical' consciousness; that is, a consciousness which originates in the 'movement' of self-reflection and is at the very foundation of Cartesian philosophy, the scientific method, and Western psychology and theology; all of which originate in thought.
According to such Eastern esotericists as J. Krishnamurti, as well as the Revelations of the monotheistic religions, however, there is, in fact, another dimension of consciousness which occurs prior to both the 'movement' of self-reflection and the thought of the 'thinker'; a consciousness which is referred to as the "observing consciousness" (that is, the consciousness Created 'by and in the image of God'--Genesis 1:27); the implication of which is that the consciousness of the 'thinker'/'unconscious' is, in fact, a particular and restricted 'frame of reference' for the understanding of human consciousness itself.
In other words, in order to develop a genuine "science" of consciousness, it is necessary to step completely outside of the boundaries of the fundamental metaphysical duality and the other metaphysical assumptions of the scientific method itself; and, in fact, to establish a completely new paradigm for the understanding of consciousness; a paradigm which includes both the Wisdom of the Eastern religions and the Knowledge concerning human consciousness Revealed in the monotheistic religions.